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This feature of essays via key names within the box of old economies within the 'Hellenistic' age (c.330-30BCE), offers crucial studying for an individual attracted to the evolutionary construction blocks of monetary historical past within the jap Mediterranean and neighbouring areas. Case reviews examine administration and associations; human mobility and average assets; the function of alternative brokers - temples and towns, in addition to rulers - in bettering assets and circulating wealth; the levers exerted by way of monopolies and through disparate prestige teams, together with slaves. An introductory essay summarizes the operational parts that drove the engines of those economies.

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12 thirteen 14 15 Aperghis 269–73, 277–81. For Seleukid taxation, in most cases, see Aperghis 137–79. Aperghis 284, 287–9; Schäfer 1995: 34. Aperghis 285; Welles 1934: no. three. 24 G. G. Aperghis TRIBUTE AND TAXATION you possibly can now research the facts for Seleukid fiscal exploitation of Judaea within the interval 200–129. Antiochos III (223–187) After his conquest of Judaea, Antiochos ordered, in a letter to his normal Ptolemaios, among different issues, tax aid for Jerusalem, which had suffered throughout the struggle (Joseph AJ 12. 138–44). sixteen For the transportation from Judaea, different areas, and Lebanon to Jerusalem of bushes and different fabrics that have been precious for the fix of the Temple, no responsibility (telos) used to be to be imposed. this might indicate toll was once mostly levied for definite items on the urban gates of Jerusalem, on the borders of the province of Judaea and on the exits of the royal forests of Lebanon. 17 there's no indication right here that the trees would truly be supplied at no cost by means of the king. What this additionally turns out to indicate to is that Judaea was once no longer handled because the chōra of Jerusalem, yet taxed independently. 3 head taxes appear to have been utilized and a few sections of the inhabitants have been to be exempted. The first head tax used to be a crown tax (stephanitikos phoros), initially a golden wreath offered to a royal benefactor that can were discontinued in favour of a fixed annual contribution in coin or, occasionally, easily augmented through this sort of contribution, as was once the case of the Jews in regards to Demetrios II (1 Macc. thirteen. 39, see below). the second one head tax used to be a salt tax (peri tōn halōn). How precisely this used to be utilized isn't really transparent, however it is probably going, from the proof of Mesopotamia, the place an identical tax is famous at either Seleucia-Tigris and Uruk, to were a demand to buy salt from a nation monopoly, with a tax extra to the revenues fee. 18 possibly the lifeless Sea may were the most resource of this salt in Judaea. The 3rd head tax is very ordinarily defined within the plural as ‘those which they're susceptible to as head taxes’ (hōn huper tēs kefalēs telousi). this would recommend more than a few diversified taxes or, extra most likely, a head tax which was once set at assorted degrees looking on the inhabitants class. 19 If yes sections of the inhabitants have been being singled out by means of Antiochos for tax sixteen Bikerman 1935. For this rfile and translation see additionally Aperghis 328–9. Bikerman 1935: sixteen. Aperghis 154–6. 19 Bikerman thought of that potentially talked about are diversified head taxes based on neighborhood customs (1935: 18). Tcherikover famous, as an instance, the part shekel paid every year through each one Jew to the Temple for the day-by-day rites (1959: 155). yet this can be not likely, in my opinion, simply because Antiochos had truly acknowledged that he wouldn't intervene with neighborhood customs. additionally Aperghis 164–6 for head taxes within the Seleukid Empire typically. 17 18 A Case learn of monetary interplay 25 exemption, it most likely implies that specific inhabitants different types had already been identified and taxed as a result.

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